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Broad Street (110-180)

110-112 Broad St. c.1728
William Harvey House
IMAGE: ON RIGHT -- 
This three story stuccoed brick house was built by William Harvey, c. 1728, after in that year selling to Charles and Elizabeth Hill his house at Broad and King (the Lining House, now 106 Broad). Harvey is identified in the 1728 deed as a butcher, but in his will dated 1739, he called himself, "gentleman," a progression in status which illustrates the fluidity of South Carolina society at the time. Ralph Izard, a planter, purchased the property in 1756. His descendant, Ralph Stead lzard, sold the property in 1837 to his uncle and aunt, Joel Roberts Poinsett and Mary Poinsett (the former Mrs. John Julius Pringle); she was a granddaughter of Ralph Izard. Poinsett is best known, not because he was for many years in Congress, Minister to Mexico and U.S. Secretary of War, but because the Poinsettia is named for him. The Poinsetts sold in 1858 to Judge Mitchell King, a municipal judge and for many years a trustee of the College of Charleston. The property remained in Judge King's family into the 20th century. One of his family who lived in the house was the Hon. George D. Bryan, Mayor of Charleston. The plan of the house is a symmetrical and similar to those of other early Charleston houses, especially the George Everleigh House, 39 Church St., but Harvey's house is on a larger scale and the finish is more elaborate. The wrought iron balcony is a notable feature of the facade. The entrance surround has the attenuated proportions and delicate decoration of the Adamesque period and therefore represents an alteration. Other changes included the addition of two marble mantelpieces in the drawing room, brought from ltaly by Mrs. Poinsett. In the rear are two outbuildings, including one in the Gothic Revival style. (Stockton, DYKYC, June 26, 1978; Stoney, This is Charleston, 16. Smith & Smith,Dwelling Houses, 249-253; Simons & Lapham, 78-79.) 


114 Broad St. c.1790
IMAGE: ON RIGHT -- Col. Thomas Pinckney, Jr., House. This substantial brick house was begun c. 1790 by Ralph Izard, a planter, but it remained unfinished at his death. In the division of his estate, the unfinished house was devised to a daughter, who died unmarried, whereupon the still unfinished house was sold in 1829 to Col. Pinckney who finished the house. Col. Pinckney was a son of Gen. Thomas Pinckney of 14 George St., and married Elizabet Izard, daughter of the man who began construction of the house. The house is distinguished by its portico of four columns on an arcaded base, with curving steps on either side. The Confederate commander, Gen. Pierre G. T. Beauregard, had his headquarters here from the end of August 1863, to December 1863. During that time he was visited here by Confederate President Jefferson Davis. In 1866, Col. Pinckney's daughter, Rosetta Ella, who married her cousin Ralph Stead Izard, and was then a widow sold the property to the Right Rev. Patrick N. Lynch Roman Catholic Bishop of Charleston. He and his successors have maintained their residence here since then. (Smith & Smith, Dwelling Houses, 250; Sparkman, "Beauregard's Headquarters;" Stoney, This is Charleston, 16.)



116 Broad St. c.1763 
John Rutledge House 
IMAGE: ON RIGHT --  John Rutledge (1739-1800) built this house as a wedding gift for his bride, 19-year-old Elizabeth Grimke, in 1763. Rutledge was a member of the South Carolina Assembly, the Stamp Act Congress, the Continental Congress and the U.S. Constitutional Convention. He was President of South Carolina between 1776-1778 and Governor of the State between 1779-1782. Rutledge also served as Chief Justice of South Carolina and Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. In the second floor drawing room, now the Signer's Ballroom, Rutledge, who chaired the drafting committee, wrote several iterations of the Constitution of the U.S. He later signed the document with the other founding fathers. In 1791, George Washington had breakfast with Mrs. Rutledge during his Presidential visit to Charleston. Rutledge is buried in St. Michael's Churchyard. Sometime after 1790, the property was acquired by Gen. John McPherson, a Revolutionary Patriot and a prominent figure on the South Carolina turf. He was among several horse breeders credited with improving the state's stock of horses and maintaining the high standard of racing. This made the South Carolina Jockey Club famous in the annals of racing during a period when it was considered the sport of gentlemen. The house was sold in 1836 to the Right Rev. John England, Roman Catholic Bishop of Charleston, whose executors later sold it in 1843. Ten years later it was acquired by Thomas Norman Gadsden, a real estate broker and slave trader. In 1853, Gadsden engaged Swedish architect P.H. Hammarskold to remodel the house. Hammerskold added terra cotta window cornices and the iron balcony, posts, curving step rail and fence to the property. He also designed the two-story brick kitchen with Gothic arched windows. The elaborate ironwork, a combination of wrought and cast iron, is attributed to Christopher Werner and depicts the Federal Eagle and S.C. Palmetto tree as a tribute to Rutledge's service in federal and state governments. During the Civil War, the Rutledge House fortunately survived a great fire that destroyed the building next door where the Articles of the Secession were signed, though it took a direct hit from a Union cannon during the siege of Charleston. Arthur Barnwell acquired the property from Gadsden's family in 1885. Barnwell re-modeled the interior, and installed eight Italian marble mantelpieces from England and parquetry floors made from three kinds of wood, in a design copied from European palaces. It is said the carpenter Noisette took eight years to install the floors. Barnwell sold the property in 1902 to Robert Goodwyn Rhett, who was Mayor of Charleston, president of the Peoples Bank and one of the developers of North Charleston. During Rhett's ownership, William Howard Taft, U.S. President and Chief Justice, was a weekend guest several times. Tradition says that during the Rhetts' residence, their butler, William Deas, invented she-crab soup.The Rutledge House served as a residence, offices and The Gaud School for more than 100 years, after which it briefly sat vacant. In 1989, a major restoration was undertaken to restore the inlaid floors, plaster work and staircase and return the house to its former glory. Additionally, an array of modern conveniences were added to transform this historic structure into an elegant, beloved bed and breakfast in Charleston.(
John Rutledge House; Ravenel, Architects, 240, 242-243; Smith & Smith, Dwelling Houses, 254-255; Stoney, This is Charleston, 16; Barry, Mr. Rutledge, passim; Wallace, 256-257, 290-293, 339; Rosen, 129, 143; Ravenel, Charleston, The Place and the People, 161, 172, 225-227, 255, 319-320, 400; Stockton, DYKYC, March 24, 1975; Nielsen, DYKYC, Feb. 10, 1936; Rhett, Gay, Woodward & Hamilton, 2-3.) 
117 Broad St. c.1760
IMAGE: ON RIGHT -- Edward Rutledge House. This large two story wooden house on a high brick basement was built, c. 1760 by James Laurens, on the Broad Street end of the former Orange Garden. Laurens, a merchant and brother of Henry Laurens. the President of the Continental Congress, died in France about the end of the Revolution. In 1788, his executors sold the property to Edward Rutledge, a signer of the Declaration of lndependence. The younger brother of John Rutledge, he was also a delegate to the Continental Congress and a captain of artillery during the Revolution. He was captured by the British in 1780 and deported to St. Augustine. After the Revolution he developed a lucrative law practice. Politically he was first a Federalist, then turned Republican, but was moderate enough to appeal to both parties, which led to his election as Governor of South Carolina in 1798. He introduced the bill in the South Carolina Assembly to abolish primogeniture. In 1790, President George Washington offered him a Federal judgeship, but he declined it. He died in 1800 and is buried opposite the south door of St. Philip's. Surprisingly, the very full inscription on his stone does not mention his signing the Declaration. Originally a Georgian house, said to have been built by a Mr. Miller, of the Miller & Fullerton building partnership, the house was expanded and Victorianized by Capt. Frederick W. Wagener, whose family acquired it in 1885. Capt. Wagener was a wealthy wholesale grocer, a horse breeder and racer at Lowndes Grove, then known as the Wagener Farm, and president of the South Carolina lnterstate and West Indian Exposition. The house was purchased in 1935 by Dr. Josiah Smith, who remodeled the exterior in the Colonial Revival style. In 1965, it was purchased by the Bishop of Charleston for use as a convent. Subsequently, it once again became a private home. (Stockton, unpub. notes; Smith & Smith, Dwelling Houses, 247-248; Rogers, Charleston in the Age of the Pinckneys, 60; Ravenel, Architects, 40; Ravenel, Charleston, The Place and the People, 185, 193-194, 228, 261, 288, 400-401; Wallace, 347-349.)

118 Broad St.
Site of the St. Andrew's Society Hall. The Society was founded in 1729 by Scots and is the oldest of its name in the world. The hall was designed by Hugh Smith (1782-1826), a merchant and "gentleman architect," and built in 1814-15. It was a two story brick building with a pediment and four engaged lonic columns, and round and square-headed windows. The iron fence across the front was added in 1819. In 1819 the hall sheltered President James Monroe, then on his southern tour, and in 1825 it housed the Marquis de Lafayette. Daniel Webster was the guest of the New England Society at a dinner here in 1847. For years the balls of the Jockey Club and the St. Cecilia Society were held here. The hall's most historic moment was 1:15 p.m., December 20, 1860, when by a unanimous vote, a convention adopted the Ordinance of Secession, withdrawing the State from the Union. It was signed that evening at the South Carolina Institute Hall on Meeting Street. Ironically, both meeting places were destroyed in the great fire of 1861. Only the iron fence and the flagstone pavement laid in front of the hall are still there. The Society never rebuilt. (Smith & Smith, Dwelling Houses, 255; Deas, 92-93; Whitelaw & Levkoff, 14-15; Rogers, Charleston in the Age of the Pinckneys, 6; Ravenel, Architects, 104-106.)

119 Broad St. c.1805
IMAGE: ON RIGHT -- Morton Waring's House. Waring, a wealthy factor, bought the site from Mrs. Ann Middleton in 1803 and built the house by 1807, when it was advertised for sale. The embargo acts of the Jefferson administration adversely affected Charleston business operations, including Waring's. He divided the property into three lots, selling two to the Freemason's Hall Company and the eastern lot, with this house on it, to Mordecai Cohen, in 1811. Cohen bought back the adjoining property in 1818. Cohen, a native of Poland, came to the United States a poor peddler, but amassed a fortune as a merchant, real estate speculator and banker, until, by 1830 he was regarded as "second only to James Adger as the wealthiest man in South Carolina." ln 1825, Cohen loaned his gold dinner service to the City for a banquet in honor of Lafayette. Cohen is said to have lost most of his fortune as a result of the great fire of 1838. He sold the house in 1844 to John L. Hedley, who sold it in 1851 to the successful merchant and factor, William B. Smith. His daughter married, I. K. Heyward. The Heyward family faced the street front with marble and made other changes, c. 1900. The house, however, retains many of its Adamesque features of c. 1803. The property was purchased in 1957 by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Charleston for use by several diocesan offices. (Green, unpub. MS; SCHS; Stoney, News & Courier,
March 16, 1958; ________, This is Charleston, 16.)

122 Broad St. c.1890
Cathedral of St. John the Baptist. This property was once the Vauxhall Gardens, a post-Revolutionary "circus" or pleasure ground for entertainments and plays. It was purchased by the Right Rev. John England, Bishop of Charleston, for the Roman Catholic Church in 1821. England was the first bishop of the Diocese, which when established in 1820 included South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia, in which there were an estimated 1,000 Catholics. Bishop England dedicated a simple wooden chapel in 1821. The first cathedral on the site, named St. Finbar's and St. John's, was designed by Patrick Charles Keely, a Brooklyn-based architect who designed literally hundreds of churches throughout the country, and who was said to have been a student of Pugin. Constructed 1850-54 the cathedral was destroyed in the great fire of 1861. Fire insurance on the building had lapsed through a oversight, before the fire. The 1861 fire also destroyed the rectory, the Seminary Library of 17,000 volumes and other valuable property. The congregation worshiped at Hibernian Hall for a time after the fire. In 1869, the Pro-Cathedral was built at 105 Queen St., as an interim place of worship. A bequest of $48,832 from John McKeegan initiated the rebuilding of the Cathedral. The ruins of the old Cathedral were removed to build the present one between 1890 and 1907. Keely also designed the present Cathedral, which has the same overall form and similar dimensions but entirely different detailing. The intended steeple was never built. The building is constructed of Connecticut brownstone, with star-shaped indentations on the surface. Keely was assisted by a local architect, Decimus C. Barbot. The builder of the cathedral was first Henry L. Cade, who died and was succeeded by Henry Oliver. Keely also designed the altars and episcopal throne in the interior. The stained glass was made by Meyer & Company of Munich. The style of the building has been described as being patterned after German Gothic churches of the 14th century. The gates and fence, which date from the 1850s, are of a simple design. (Rogers, Charleston in the Age of the Pinckneys, 115; Rhett & Steel, 26-27; O'Connell, Catholicity in the Carolinas, 38-55, 61-65; Whitelaw & Levkoff, 43; Legerton, 66-67; Fraser, Reminiscences, 122; Ravenel, Architects, 254-257; Mazyck & Waddell, 17; Guilday, Life and Times of John England, passim; O'Brien, John England, passim; Stoney, This is Charleston, 16.)

125 Broad St. c.1886
IMAGE 
-- One of Charleston's more interesting Victorian dwellings is the Charles Robert Valk House, built in 1886. Valk, a prominent local businessman, lived in this house when the Civil War broke out, and he, at the age of 16, enlisted in the Confederate Army with the rest of his school. After the war he became the superintendent of a Charleston fertilizer concern. Later he was a partner in Valk and Murdock, which ran a large machine shop, iron foundary and shipbuilding plant. Much iron work about the city bears the firm's imprint. The firm subsequently became the Charleston Shipbuilding and Drydock Co. Valk had begun construction of this house when the earthquake of 1886 knocked down the initial 10 feet of walls. The house was then built to be "earthquake proof'" with iron rods running from the chimneys to the ground level. The large pale yellow brick used in the building is Stoney Landing brick, made locally in th 1880s. The roof originally was covered with iron shingles which were replaced with asbestos shingles in the 1960s. Doors and interior woodwork came from Boston. The house, very modern for its time in Charleston, is in the Jacobethan style, based on English vernacular architecture of the 16th and 17th centuries. Few examples of the style were built in the United States before 1890. (Thomas, DYKYC, Sept 30, 1968; Whiffen, 178-182.)

134 Broad St. c.1872
Charleston architect John Henry Devereux designed and built this two story frame dwelling for John Klinck in 1872, for a cost of nearly $7,000. Klinck, a merchant, died in 1888, bequeathing the house to his son Gustavus W. Klinck. His family retained it until 1932. The house is in a restrained Gothic Revival style, with clustered porch columns and other details. (Stockton, unpub. notes.)

135 & 137 Broad St. c.1876
John Peter Merkhardt, a German baker, later identified in city directories as a "capitalist," built the two and one-half story wooden house at 135 as a residence in 1876. A Mr. Schumacher was the builder. Merkhardt built the two and one-half story wooden house at 137 Broad in 1879 as a rental unit. Both are in the 19th century town house plan with a hall on one side but the plan is localized by the presence of piazzas on the west sides of the houses. (Stockton, DYKYC, Oct. 6, 1980; ______, unpub. notes.)

152 Broad St. c.1885
IMAGE 
-- John Henry Devereux was the architect of this house, built c. 1885 for William M. Bird. Bird was a partner with H.F. Welch in William M. Bird & Co., wholesale dealers in paints, oils, glass, naval stores and ship chandlery, at East Bay and Cumberland Streets. Bird never lived here, but continued to live at 17 Meeting St. He sold the property in 1889 to Otto Tiedeman, a wholesale grocer on East Bay, who is the first documented occupant of the house. Some architectural details of this two story frame house are similar to features on the house Devereux remodeled for George S. Cook at 24 South Battery 15 years earlier. Similarities include the prominent two tiered bay window, window treatment, piazza collonettes and railings, and other decorations. The house is faced with novelty siding typical of the period and the foundation is of Stoney Landing brick, made locally in the 1880s. (Stockton, DYKYC, Nov. 16, 1981.)

164, 166 & 168 Broad St. c.1886
These three houses demonstrate the rising fortunes of Samuel Wragg Simons in the 1880s an '90s. The oldest (and most modest}, now numbered 168 Broad St., originally stood at 3 Franklin St., and was built by Simons by 1886, when he was an employee of a cotton exporting firm, Watson & Hill. The houses at 164 and 166 Broad were built by Simons in 1891, after he had become manager of the company. The largest and most elaborate, the house at 164 Broad St., was built as his own home. Before building 164 and 166 Broad in 1891, Simons had his Franklin Street house moved on rollers to its present position. The two new houses were built at a cost of $8,000. Born in 1837, Simons served in the Civil War in the Charleston Light Dragoons until accidentally shot in the face by a comrade's pistol. The bullet was removed years later by a famous London surgeon. After managing Watson & Hill for some years, Simons entered the cotton exporting business with T.G.S. Lucas. He died at 164 Broad in 1917. His residence at 164 Broad is two and one-half stories of frame, with a three story square tower and a gabled front extension. The house at 166 Broad is smaller but similar in detail: a distinctive element is the truncated gable end of the roof. The two and one-half story frame house at 168 Broad is more conservative in style, with traditional side piazzas. The chimneys, typical of c. 1890, date after the house was moved. (Stockton, DYKYC, Oct. 1, 1980.)

180 Broad St. c.1850
Built c. 1850, this three story wooden, Greek Revival house was used as a prison for union officers during the Civil War. The house, with its giant order Tower of the Winds columns, is notable architecturally. (Stoney, This is Charleston, 17; Waddell, "Introduction of Greek Revival," 7; Whitelaw & Levkoff, 34-35.)