-- William Inglesby, a merchant tailor, built this building c. 1806. The facade dates from c. 1870.
(Green, unpub. notes, HCF)
41 Broad St.
-- William Waller, a saddler, built this structur c. 1835. The facade dates from c. 1870.
(Green, unpub. notes, HCF)
42 Broad St.
IMAGE-- Williann Inglesby. a merchant tailor, built this building c. 1797. The present facade dates from c. 1850, is of cast iron, in the Italianate style.
(Green, unpub. notes, HCF)
43-47 Broad St.
IMAGE-- Charles Love and Conrad M. Wienges, saddler and harness makers, purchased this site in 1855, removed some earlier structures and constructed the present building. In 1870, they sold it to Charles Plenge, who added the pressed tin cornice with his name. The "Hat Man" painting on the Church Street side of the building dates from the late 19th century.
(Green, unpub. notes, HCF)
46 Broad St.
-- Site of Shepheard's Tavern, also known at various times as Swallow's Tavern, The City Tavern and The Corner Tavern. Charleston's taverns were more than just eating and drinking establishments, and at this location occurred many historically important events. One was the organization of one of the first Masonic lodges in the United States. Solomon's Lodge No. 1, Free and Accepted Masons, was organized on Oct. 29, 1736 , at 'Mr. Charles Shepheard 's in Broad Street ' . The first Scottish Rite lodge, the Supreme council, 33rd Degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Free Masonry, was organized at the same location in 1801. The first record of a theatrical season in Charleston, and one of the first in the country, is an announcement in the South Carolina Gazette, Jan. 11, 1735, that on the following 24th, a tragedy called The Orphan, or the Unhappy Marriage, by Thomas Otway, would be "'attempted'' in ''the Courtroom.'' The ''courtroom'' was the long room of Shepheard's Tavern, which was rented for several years prior to 1738 to the provincial government for meetings of the court, since the Province had no suitable building and the Governor and Council could not agree on where one should be built. The use of the same room for court sessions and entertainments was not unusual. A dancing master, Henry Holt, gave a ball in the Courtroom a month before The Orphan was presented there. (The Orphan was not the first theatrical production in Charleston. Tony Aston, an English actor, in 1703, wrote and acted what was probably the first professional dramatic performance written and acted in the American colonies.) Shepheard's was also one of the city's post offices. In 1743, Shepheard received and distributed mail arriving on ships and by land. In 1773, when the establishment was Swallow's Tavern, the first Chamber of Commerce in America was formed. Banquets were given for arriving Royal Governors at Shepheard's Tavern (also at Dillon's and Poinsett's taverns) . The St. Andrew's Society, and other fraternal organizations in the city, held their meetings and dinners at Shepheard's (and at Dillon's, Kerr's, etc.) The Corner Tavern (and Charles Town's other taverns) also hosted meetings of the Sons of liberty during the Revolutionary period. The City Tavern burned in 1796 but was soon replaced. The tavern building was demolished in 1928 for the construction, in 1928-29, of the present building. The Classic style buildlng, faced with Indiana limestone, cost $280,000 to build. Olaf Otto, designer of the Savannah River Bridge, was the civil engineer, architect and builder of the structure, for the Citizens and Southern Bank. The Citizens and Southern Bank was organized as the Citizens Bank of Savannah and merged with the southern Bank of the State of Georgia to become the Citizens and Southern Bank in 1906.
(Cohen, South Carolina Gazette, passim; Walsh, Sons of Liberty, p. 48; Rogers, Charleston in the Age of the Pinckneys, p. 82; Thompson, "Postal History," ; Frazier, p. 34; Whitelaw & Levkoff, p. 169; "HSM" DYKYC, April 8, 1935; Bowes, p. 119, 121-122)
IMAGE: ON RIGHT-- Built c. 1740 by Benjamin Smith, a merchant, this three story, stuccoed brick building with a dentil cornice and quoins, retains Georgian paneling on the upper level. The first level fenestration has been changed several times, the latest change being made in 1963. The building is often called the Paul House, because it was purchased in 1819 by Dunbar Paul and remained in his family for nearly a century. The Pauls operated a grocery store here until 1901. The wrought iron balcony is considered one of the best examples of eighteenth century ironwork in the city.
(Green, unpub. notes, HCF; Thomas, DYKYC, Oct. 23, 1968; Deas, p. 58-59; Stoney, This is Charleston, p. 12; Mazyck & Waddell, illus. 51)
-- The Bank of South Carolina, organized c. 1792 and chartered in 1801, built this substantial structure in 1797-98. The T-shaped building is two stories of brick on a raised cement brick basement. The facade has a pedimented, and slightly projecting center pavilion. Keystone arches delineate the central entrance, the lunette in the pediment and two niches on the Church Street side, while other windows have lintels with keystones and voussoirs; all these features are of white marble. In 1802, the bank became the object of the daring "Ground Mole Plot" in which one Withers entered a drain under the street near the building and for three months tunneled his way towards the vaults, living underground and being supplied with food and water by an accomplice, whose carelessness ultimately betrayed the "mole." The vault was never entered. The bank remained here until 1835 when it moved to Broad and East Bay streets. The Charleston Library Society acquired the building in 1835 and maintained its library here until 1914, when it moved to King Street. The collection of the South Carolina Historical Society, through the courtesy of the Library Society, was located in the building from 1875 to 1914. During the Library Society's occupancy, the building was Victorianized with the addition of an elaborate pediment and bracketted cornice. The building was purchased in 1916 by the Charleston Chamber of Commerce, which remained here until 1966. In that year, the Citizens and Southern National Bank bought the building, removed the 19th century roof line embellishments, rehabilitated the interior and replicated the wrought iron fence, based on photographs of the original. The award-winning garden was designed by landscape architect Robert Marvin of Walterboro.
(Stockton, DYKYC, Dec. 11, 1978. Clark, History of the Banking Institutions, 42-43, 50-56. Ramsay, 2:6. ; Stoney, unpub. notes. Debnam, unpub. MS. Mazyck & Waddell, illus. 41. Stoney, This is Charleston, 12. Wallace, 372,426-428, 579 )
5l-53 Broad St. c.1740
--This double building was built c. 1740 by Benjamin Smith, a merchant, the present facade, however dates trom 1899. A photograph of 1883 shows a three and one-half story masonry building with a high hipped roof and a mid-l9th century storefront. The present facade has an oversized gable obscuring the original roof, a large balcony on the upper level and two bay windows, and stylized Renaissance Revival details typical of the turn of the century. The building is designated a National Historic Landmark as the studio of sculptor Clark Mills (1815-83), who came to Charleston in the l830s. The Onondaga, N.Y., native was a pioneer in casting bronze statues in the United States. While at 51 Broad, Mills designed the bust of John C. Calhoun (1845) which is now in City Hall. In 1848, he was commissioned to do an equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson, for Lafayette Square, Washington. D. C. He cast Thomas Crawford's design for the allegorical statue, ''Freedom," for the U.S. Capitol dome. Subsequently, the building housed the law office of Thomas P. Stoney, Mayor of Charleston, 1923-31 and author of the city's preservation ordinance.
(Stockton, unpub. notes. Thomas, DYKYC, Sept. 23, 1968. Green, unpub. notes; HCF. Mazyck & Waddell, illus. 51. CEP, Dec. 20, 1965.)
54 Broad St. c.1771
--This three and one-half story, stucooed brick building is said to have been built for the Geiger family, c. 1771, by Peter and John Adam Horlbeck, with materials left over from building the Exchange. The Horlbeck brothers were contractors for building the Exchange in 1767-71. From 1870 to 1905, this was the office of Henry Ficken, Mayor of Charleston in 1891-95.
(Nielsen, DYKYC, Feb. 17, 1936. Ravenel, Architects, 46-47. Deas, 72 . Green, unpub. notes; HCF. Stoney, This is Charleston, 12 )
55 and 57 Broad St. c.1907
IMAGE- These two bow-fronted buildings were built in 1907 by T. K. and Alex Marshall, brokers.
(Green, unpub. notes; HCF.)
56-58 Broad St. c.1798
IMAGE-- This double building was constructed in two stages (No. 58, c. 1798 and No. 56, c. 1800} by John Geddes, attorney and Republican politician. He was speaker of the House, and Governor, 1818-20. Geddes and his son were ''damned'' by Edward P. Simons in a political campaign in 1823. In the resulting duel, the younger Geddes was shot through both thighs and Simons was killed . From 1869 to 1874, 58 Broad was the location of the Charleston branch of the Freedman's Bank, a national bank for blacks. The Charleston branch had 5,500 depositors and about $350,000 in deposits in 1873, 'but mismanagement at other branches and manipulations by white New York financiers caused the bank to fail in 1874. The Freedman's Bank did some renovation of the building when it occupied the premises, but the present facade treatwent of 56 and 58 Broad appears to date from a later period in the Victorian era.
(Green, unpub. notes; HCF. Stockton, DYKYC, July 18, 1983. Wallace, 368, 370, 494. Charleston Daily Courier, June 29, 1871. Taylor, 68-69. Williamson, 178-179. Abbott, 109-111. Franklin, 310-311 )
59 Broad St. c.1940
-This two story office building was constructed in 1940 for Triest & Sholk, real estate and insurance agency, who engaged Charleston architect Archie B. Myers to design the structure and contractor Sam Ginsberg to build it. In 1984, plans were drawn by Liollio Associates lnc., Charleston architects, for adding a third story to the building, for the current owner, Mrs. Minnie Sherman.
(Stockton, unpub. MS, HCF.)
IMAGE-- The Confederate Home. Behind the exuberant Victorian facade is a double tenement built c. 1800 by Gilbert Chalmers, a master builder, who put a covered passageway through the center of the building. In 1834 the property was purchased by Angus Stewart who operated the Carolina Hotel here. The hotel was subsequently continued by Archibald Mckenzie. He rented the building in 1867 to the Home for the Mothers, Widows, and Daughters of Confederate soldiers, also known as the Confederate Home. The institution was founded in 1867 by Mrs. Mary Amarinthia Snowden and her sister Mrs. Isabell S. Snowden. The two women mortgaged their home to help finance the hone, which filled a need at a desperate time in the history of the area. The building also housed the Confederate College which provided educational opportunities for young ladies until the early 1920s. Dr. Charle S. Vedder, for 50 years pastor of the Huguenot Church, and other individuals taught at the Confederate College without salary. The Confederate Home purchased the property in 1874. The middle section with the cantilevered piazza (having no visible support) was built between 1872 and 1882. The home also took over the for mer United States Court facilities to the rear (see 23-25 Chalmers St.). The building was severely dmmaged in the 1886 earthquake. It was repaired with donations from throughout the country in 1887. At that time, the Victorian facade, with the mansard roof and fanciful dormers,was constructed. The Confederate Home today (1984) is made up of apartments of varying sizes, available mainly to people of retirement age, and a few offices and studios. The former U.S. Court Room and the rear piazza overlooking the large tree-shaded courtyard, are now used for the Home 's annual "tea room" in the spring.
(Stockton, DYKYC, Nov. 22, 1976. Green, unpub. notes; HCF.)
61 Broad St. c.1815
-- This tall brick building in the Federal style was built c. 1815, by Robert Downie, a tinsmith.
(Green, unpub. notes; HCF.)
63 Broad St. c.1834
IMAGE- Robert Downie also built this brick house sometime after purchasing the site, with a wooden house on it, in 1834. The Renaissance Revival facade treatment and projecting cornice probably date from the 1890s.
(Green, unpub. notes; HCF)
65 Broad St. c.1740
-- Thomas Fleming bought this site in 1725 and was living in this gambrel-roofed house when he made his will in 1745. Fleming was a planter. The present facade, with the masking parapet, is believed to date from the late 1840s or early '50s.
(Green, unpub. notes; HCF)
66 Broad St. c.1800
--This one story brick building in the Greek Revival style was built as an office by Dr . Samuel Wilson, a physician. The present facade was added, c . 1844 to the c. 1800 building.
(Green, unpub. notes; HCF. Thomas, DYKYC, Ayg. 9, 1968.)
67-69 Broad St. c.1758
--This three and one-half story building with a passage through the west side, was constructed between 1758 and 1765 by John Hume, a prominent merchant of the period. ln the 19th century it was the annex of the famous Jones' or Mansion House Hotel, located next door to the west.
-- Daniel Ravenel built this three and one-half story brick single house between 1796 and 1800. It stands on property acquired by Isaac Mazyck, the immigrant, in 1710. Mazyck left the lot to his daughter Charlotte, in 1749. Ten years later she married the second Daniel Ravenel of Wantoot. This house replaced a previous house which burned in the fire of 1796, and is in the Adamesque style then new to Charleston. The property continues to be occupied (1984) by descendants of lsaac Mazyck and Daniel Ravenel, having been some 275 years in the same family. (Green, unpub. MS; SCHS. Stoney, This is Charleston, 13 )
71 Broad St.
--Site of the William Burrows House, Jones Hotel, the Mansion House. William Burrows, Esq. , built his three and one-half story wooden mansion here in 1772-74. Burrows was an attorney, Master in Chancery (1761), Assistant Justice (1762 ), and Justice (1764) and held more than 10,000 acres. His country seat was Magnolia Umbra Plantation, now the site of Magnolia and St. Lawrence cemeteries. His heirs sold his town house in 1784 to Thomas Hall, Postraster. lt was purchased from Hall's estate in 1815 by Jehu Jones, a free black man. Jones had bought, in 1809, the former Moultrie house to the west, and opened a hotel. After purchasing the Burrows house, Jones sold the Moultrie house in 1816 to St. Michael 's Church, which demolished it to extend the church yard. Jones continued to operate his hotel in the Burrows Rouse until his death in 1833. The English traveler Thomas Hamilton, who stayed at Jones' Hotel in 1832, wrote, "Every Englishman who visits Charleston, will, if he be wise, direct his baggage to Jones's hotel.'' Famous guests included artist Samuel F. B. Morse and architect William Jay, and the English actress Fanny Kemble. The name, Jones' Hotel, was retained until 1852 when Mrs. Jane Davis rented the property and renamed it the Mansion House, a title she had previously used for her hotel at Meeting and Queen streets. After the Civil War, the establishment degenerated into a boarding house. It was purchased in 1928 by a buyer who planned to rebuild it on the Ashley River, outside the city. The house was carefully dismantled, but then the Great Depression intervened and the architectural elements remained in storage for nearly 30 years. In 1959, the drawing room of the Burrows house was installed in the Winterthur Museum. The present two story masonry office building was built in 1930 by Henry Schachte a sons, insurance and real estate brokers.
(Green, unpub. notes; HCF. Simons & Simons, "William Burrows," ______, "William Burroughs." Rogers, Charleston in the Age of the Pinckneys, 146. Ravenel, Architects, 110. )
The Four Corners of Law
is the name applied by Ripley, author of "Believe lt Or Not," to the four corners of Broad and Meeting Streets. These four corners were set apart in the Grand Modell of Charles Town for a "church, town house and other public structures," and have always been occupied by public structures. St. Michael's represents canon law, City Hall represents municipal law, the Court House represents state law, and the U.S. Court House and Post office represents federal law, according to Ripley.
(Leland, Charleston; Crossroads of History, 6. )
-- City Hall. This Adamesque style building was erected in 1800-01 for the Charleston branch of the first Bank of the United States. It stands on the site set aside for a public market in the Grand Modell. The Bee Market, built here just prior to 1739, stood until 1796 when it was destroyed by fire. In 1800 the City Council conveyed this property to the Bank of the U.S. "for the purpose of erecting an Elegant Building thereon for a Banking House." The Charleston branch, one of eight in the country, was known as the Office of Discount and Deposit. The branch was located at 100 Church Stree before this building was erected. The design of the building is attributed to Gabriel Manigault (1758-1809 ) "gentleman architect.'' Manigault, who studied in Europe and came home in 1780 with a substantial architectural library, is credited with introducing the Adamesque style to Charleston. An 1800 newspaper account names Edward Magrath and Joseph Nicholson as the "architects" of the building, and Andrew Gordon as the "builder. " The term "architect" was used often interchangeably with "builder" at the time. Magrath and Nicholson submitted a plan for the South Carolina College competition in 1802: their entry was unsuccessful but commended by the committee. Magrath and Nicholson were usually identified as carpenters. lt is theorized that they did the carpentry, while Gordon, who was a mason, did the brickwork: such division of labor was common. The attribution of the design to Manigault comes from a family history written by his grandsons (whose veracity concerning his other designs has not been questioned). The building is more elaborately decorated than Manigault's other buildings but shares other characteristics with them, especially the semi-circular projection on the north side (originally containing a stair) and the round windows in the basement: both these features are also found on the Joseph Manigault House, which he designed. Tradition says the marble trim was brought, ready-cut, from Philadelphia where it had been imported from Italy, for a house which Lewis Morris planned but never built. Congress declined to regrant the Bank's charter in 1811 and it was forced out of business. According to stipulations of the 1800 deed the United States conveyed the property back to the City in 1818 and it has been used as City Hall since then. The interior, which had been a large open room surrounded by a gallery, was converted into two stories in 1839 by the German architect Charles Reichardt (designer of the Charleston Hotel and the Guard House). In 1882 a new roof was put on and the red bricks, laid in Flemish bond, were covered with stucco. The Victorian council chamber was installed during the 1882 remodeling. The chamber's walls were refaced with narrow paneling following the 1886 earthquake and the ceiling of polychrome panels was installed around the turn of the century. The room is filled with an important collection of portraits and other paintings. the largest of which is John Trumbull's 1791 portrait of George Washington. The painting Fire Masters of Charleston depicts the City Hall's exterior before the stuccoing. Other works include Charles Fraser 's miniature of Lafayette, Samuel F.B. Morse's portrait of James Monroe, Vanderlyn's portrait of Andrew Jackson. To see a Mathew Brady Civil War photograph of this building, click here.
(Fraser, 33. Smith & Smith, Dwelling Houses, 259-260. Whitelaw & Levkoff, 42. ; Rogers, Charleston in the Age of the Pinckneys, 58, 86. Ravenel, Architects, 61-63, 67-70, 98-103, 180. Mazyck & Waddell, illus. 7, 9. Iseley & Cauthen, 13. Deas, 84-85. Yearbook...1882, 205-209. Stoney, This is Charleston, 14. Deeds, A6-233, B7-317. Debnam, unpub. MS.)
83 Broad St. c.1896
-- U.S. Court House and Post Office Building. This site, like the other three corners of Broad and Meeting streets, was set aside in the Grand Modell for public use. The '"lchonography" of 1739 shows this corner of the public square as vacant. Between 1767 and 1769 William Rigby Naylor (designer of the Exchange) and Jame Brown built a Guard House (police station) . The building was two stories of brick with an imposing pediment and four Tuscan columns. The portico, projecting over the pavement and obstructing the passage, was removed. A third story was added which, Fraser said, "made it a very shapeless structure. But it accomodated sundry public officers, which was paramoumt to all considerations of taste." In addition to the Guard, the building housed the Secretary of State, the Register of Mesne Conveyance and Surveyor General. The 1788 fire map of Charleston shows a second building to the south of the Guard House designated the Treasury and the Auditor General's Office. Naylor's altered Guard House was taken down in 1838 and replaced by one designed by the German architect Charle F. Reichardt (architect of the Charleston Hotel) . The building showed the inftuence of the Berlin architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781-1841), who was said to have been Reichardt's teacher, in its austere massiveness and especially in the monumental collonade of 11 Doric columns on the Meeting Street side and six on the Broad Street side. Once again, practical considerations prevailed over artistic, however, and the collonade along the east side was removed in 1856 to widen Meeting Street. Reichardt's Guard House remained in use until 1886, whe it was damaged so severely by the earthquake that it was taken down. Miraculously, 30 men sleeping in the upper story when the earthquake occurred, escaped unhurt. During the demolition of the structure, the famous ''Sword Gates'' which were made by Christopher Werner and possibly designed by Reichardt, were saved, and were installed at a later date in the Lesesne Gate at The Citadel. (Tradition says Werner misunderstood his order for the gates and made an extra pair, which a decade later were installed by George Hopley in front of his house at 32 Legare St. A new Police Department building was constructed at King and Hutson streets, adjacent to the Old Citadel . The U.S. Court House and Post office, in the Renaissance Revival style, was completed in 1896. The design is attrib uted to John Renry Devereux, Charleston architect. The grey granite building, with its square tower, heavy balustraded balconies, rusticated base and quoins, classic door and window surrounds, great double doors and high and broad flights of steps, is designed to resemble an ltalian Renaissance palace. The Post office today has an impressive brass-railed staircase, stone columns and wood paneling.
(Stockton, DYKYC, June 11, 1979. Whitelaw & Levkoff, 70. Rogers, Charleston in the Age of the Pinckneys, 58. Ravenel, Architects, 36, 180, 266. Deas, 32. Fraser, 101. Thompson. Mazyck & Waddell, illus 11. "Ichonography," 1739. "Ichnography," 1788.; Deeds, B7- 317. )