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East Bay Street (43-117)

Photo: Rainbow Row 79-107 East Bay c.1740-1780

Other photos this page:

45 East Bay c.1780

51 East Bay c.1799

95 East Bay c.1741

99-101 East Bay c.1741

Plus additional linked photos

East Bay street was originally called Bay Street or The Bay. According to Ramsay, the first houses were built along the waterfront. The early grants described lots as bounding east on Cooper River. lt was literally true, as there was nothing to the east of East Bay but marsh and water. From the settlement of the town, East Bay was the center of a growing commerce. As commerce grew and the town grew, so did the number of wharfs or "bridges" as they were called. With the buildup of land east of the town wall on curtain line, short streets were laid out east of East Bay and office buildings and warehouses were built on the street and wharfs. Most of that development occurred after the American Revolution. During the colonial period, the east side of East Bay was fortified, from Granville's Bastion on the South to Craven's Bastion on the north. The west side of the street was lined with buildings, stores below and residences above, while the wharfs projected to the east of the curtain line. East Bay crossed a small swamp at the foot of Queen Street and crossed a drainage canal at present-day Market Street via the Governor's Bridge, whence it continued north to Colleton Square and the other suburbs. Above the Governor's Bridge it was known as East Bay Continued as far as Laurens Street, where it was known as Front street or So-Be-lt Lane.
(Rogers, Charleston in the Age of the Pinckneys , p.55-56 ; Ichonography 1739; Ichonography,1788; Smith & Smith, Dwelling Houses , p.268-269 ; "Streets of Charleston.")



 

43 East Bay c.1755

IMAGE-- This house stands on part of Lot No. 1 of the Grand Modell, which was granted by the Lord Proprietors, in 1682, to Maurice Mathews and Jame Moore. A portion of Town Lot No. 1 was acquired at some point by John Daniel who on his death devised it to his son Adam Daniel. Adam Daniel, in 1755, conveyed this portion of Lot No. 1 to George Sommers. The property was described at the time as having a "Tenement" thereon. This house, which stylistically dates from c. 1755, is either the "Tenement" mentioned in the deed or was erected by George Sommers soon after the purchase. The property then bounded to the south "partly on the Brick Wall and partly on a small wooden bridge leading to the Westward" across a finger of marsh extending north from Vanderhorst Creek. The conveyance also included some "low water land" to the south of Granville Bastion. This property remained in the ownership of Sommers and his family at least until the 1790s, and the bend in East Bay, where it connects with East Battery, was known as "Sommer's Corner." This three and one-half story, stuccoed brick house has outstanding paneling and other details in the Georgian style. [Note: this house has been identified in some sources erroneously as the James Hartley House; Hartley actually owned the land next door to the north, at present-day 45 East Bay.
(Stockton, unpub. M.S.; Stoney, This is Charleston , p.39 ; Chamberlain & Chamberlain, Southern Interiors )



 

45 East Bay c.1780

IMAGE: ON RIGHT-- Adam Daniel, in 1757, conveyed this portion of Lot No.1 to James Hartley. Hartley made his will later the same year, directing that his executor see that his dwelling house here "be Completely finished upon the Plan and present Design thereof." Hartley's dwelling house seems not to have survived and it appears that the present house was built by his son-in-law, William Somersall, in the decade or so after the Revolution. A native of St. Kitt's, Somersall came to South Carolina in the 1760s and became a prominent merchant and planter. During the Revolution he loaned f23,580 to the South Carolin government. He served in the General Assembly, 1787- 90, and was a delegate to the state convention to ratify the U.S. Constitution, in 1788. He was married in 1774 to Hartley's daughter Sarah, as his second wife. Their daughter Mary married John Ward, an attorney and they lived here after 1807. Ward was a State Representative, 1792-98 and Senator, 1798-1810, twice president of the State Senate, and lntendant of Charleston, 1801-02. He was also a Colonel in the S.C. Militia. This property, described as "having thereon a three Story brick building... formerly the residence of the said Col. John Ward, deceased," was devised to his daughter Sarah (wife of Edward Armstrong of Newburgh N.Y.) in 1821. She and her husband sold it in 1836. ln 1850, the property was purchased by Wilmot G. DeSaussure. DeSaussure, who subsequently became a confederate general, thoroughly remodeled the house in the taste of his period.
(Stockton, unpub. M.S.; Stoney, This is Charleston , p.39 )



 

47 East Bay Mrs. Boone's House c.1740

IMAGE -- Mrs. Anne Boone's House, built c. 1740, is a three and one-half story brick single house. lts extremely thick brick walls may have survived the great fire of 1740 and date from a house she inherited
in 1733 from her husband Joseph Boone. Boone came to Carolina from England in 1680 with a large company of Puritans. Anne's father, Landgrave Daniel Axtell was the leader of the party. Boone led many of the political battles of these dissenters in the early 18th century. The middle window on the ground floor was probably the original entrance. The iron balcony was from another old house and the iron gates to the carriage house were added by George Moffett before 1917. The Doric columned piazza was added c. 1840.
(Stockton, DYKYC, Feb. 1,1982.; Smith & Smith, Dwelling Houses , p.161-168 ; Stoney, This is Charleston , p.40 ; Stoney, Charleston's Historic Houses , 1949,16-17 )



 

50 East Bay

IMAGE-- Carolina Yacht club. The bow fronted older portion was once a range of factors' offices along "wharf." The club was organized in 1883, incorporated in 1888, and purchased this property in 1907, after which the portion with the large square cupola was built. The water side of the clubhouse was torn down in 1974 and replaced with new construction. The premises are open to members and guests only.
(Simons, Stories of Charleston Harbor , p.126-127 ; Thomas, News and Courier , Dec. 11,1971; Stoney, News & Courier , April 13,1958; Bridgens & Allen Map, 1852.)



 

51 East Bay c.1799

IMAGE: ON RIGHT-- This three story stuccoed brick house was built c. 1799 by Caspar Chrisian Shutt, a wealthy German merchant, who had his counting house and residence here. Subsequently, it was acquired in 1821 by John Fraser, a partner in John Fraser & Co. and in Fraser Trenholm & Co. , which firms became blockade runners during the Civil War. The piazza levels show the "proper" progression of orders: Doric on the first, lonic on the second and Corinthian on the third. Tradition says Charles T. Lowndes, who purchased the property in 1836, demolished an adjacent house to build the piazza, and his son Rawlins Lowndes later pulled down another house to make space for the garden.
(Smith & Smith, Dwelling Houses , p.160 ; Stockton, DYKYC, Jan. 1,1979.; Stoney, This is Charleston , p.40 )



 

53 East Bay c.1780

IMAGE-- This three and one-half story stuccoed brick building is presumed to be post-Revolutionary. lt is the home of the Charleston Club, organized in 1852.
(Stoney, This is Charleston , p.40 )



 

55 East Bay Jonathan Simpson House c.1780

IMAGE -- A three and one-half story stuccoed brick building, this valuable structure was built c. 1780 by Jonathan Simpson.
(Stoney, This is Charleston , p.40 )



 

57 East Bay Thomas Pinckney House c.1783

IMAGE-- Gen. Thomas Pinckney's house, a three story stuccoed brick house with quoins, was built c. 1783. Gen. Pinckney was Governor of South Carolina, the first U.S. Minister to England and the envoy to Spain who negotiated the treaty opening the Mississippi River to American navigation. The iron balcony came from 2 Queen St.
(Stoney, This is Charleston , p. ; Williams, A Founding Family , passim )



 

71 East Bay St.

IMAGE -- Built as a commercial building before 1900, this three story masonry structure was converted into a residence for Mrs. Nicholas Roosevelt, c.1930, by architect Albert Simons.
(Stoney, This is Charleston , p.40 ; Stockton, DYKYC, Oct. 29,1979.)



 

73 East Bay c.1918

IMAGE -- Dr. Julius Sosnowski built this two story residence c. 1918. Originally the dark red brick was exposed; it was stuccoed in 1979 when the building was rehabilitated.
(Stockton, DYKYC, Oct. 29,1979.)



 

76-78 East Bay Vanderhorst Row c.1800

IMAGE-- Vanderhorst Row, was built in 1800 by Gen. Arnoldus Vanderhorst, lntendant of Charleston, Governor of South Carolina (1792-94), general of the War of 1812 and owner of Kiawah lsland. This was his south row. Vanderhorst's North Row, built in 1810, stood to the north of Vanderhorst's Wharf. His town house stood on the southwest corner of East Bay and Longitude Lane. The tradition that this was "America's first apartment house" is a fabrication. lt was a tenement row, one of several buildings in the city which were built as multi-family dwellings, and there are older examples of the type in the city. The row has three separate tenements, each three and one-half stories . The facade is treated like that of an English country mansion with a slightly projecting center section with a pediment. The row was in a dilapidated state when it was restored in 1935-36 by Dr. Josiah E. Smith.
(Simons & Lapham, Early Architecture, p.134-135 ; News & Courier , June 22,1935; DYKYC, March 30,1936; Thomas, DYKYC, Jan. 2,1968; Charleston Evening Post , June 21,1935; Wills, WPA, p. ; Smith & Smith, Dwelling Houses , p.159-160 ; Stoney, This is Charleston , p.40 )




East Bay & Longitude Lane -- Marker denotes the site of the home of Landgrave Thomas Smith, Governor of Carolina in 1693-94. ln 1852, the site was occupied by the cotton compress of Alexander R. Marshall & Co. The compress building was demolished in 1940.
(News & Courier , June 16,1940 and Aug. 28,1967)




 

79-107 East Bay

See photo top of this page-- "Rainbow Row" ln the 1920s and '30s, this line of valuable old houses was gradually changed from slums to a handsome residential neighborhood. Built as merchant's houses, some as early as 1740, the buildings originally had stores and counting houses on the first level and residences above. The name "Rainbow Row," was coined in the 1930s when, for the first time in a generation, the buildings were painted, in a variety of pastel shades.
(Stockton, "Rainbow Row,"; Stockton, DYKYC, July 30,1979.; DYKYC, June 29,1936; Stoney, This is Charleston , p.41 ; Stoney, News & Courier , April 13,1958 )




 

79-81 East Bay c.1778

IMAGE-- This building has undergone several changes. lt retains the walls of two structures - a three story brick building, built c. 1849 by Henry Bulwinkle, a prosperous grocer and grist miller; and a three and one-half story brick building, constructed c. 1778 by Robert Lindsay, a merchant. The two buildings were both severely damaged by the 1886 earthquake after which they were rebuilt behind a common facade by John Henry Klenke, a grocer, as his store and residence. The building was remodeled as a residence in 1953, by eliminating the storefront (except for single cast iron column) and the addition of a new fanlighted door and windows.
(Stockton, "Rainbow Row,"; Stockton, DYKYC, March 26,1979.; Nielsen, DYKYC, April 27,1953)



 

83 East Bay William Stone House c.1780

-- The William Stone House was built sometime before 1784 and is in the transitional style, between the Georgian and Federal periods, characteristic of the years following the Revolution. Stone, a merchant, had the four and one-half story, stuccoed brick store and residence built after the great fire of 1778, by which time he had moved to England. The house was rehabilitated in 1941 by Susan Pringle Frost, who added the fanlighted doorway.
(Stockton, "Rainbow Row,"; Stockton, DYKYC, April 12,1979 )



 

85 East Bay c.1784

-- Built between 1784 and 1788 by the merchantile firm of Smiths, Desaussure & Darrell, this four story, stuccoed brick commercial-residential builing, converted to a residence. Partners in the firm were George Smith, Josiah Smith, Daniel DeSaussure and Edward Darrell . The covered passage on the south side formerly was enclosed at each end by wooden gates.
(Stockton, "Rainbow Row,"; Stockton, DYKYC, April 9, 1979.)



 

87 East Bay c.1792

-- James Gordon, a merchant and planter apparently of Scots origin, built this four story stuccoed brick house, with quoins on the corners, sometime after 1792.
(Stockton, "Rainbow Row,"; Stockton, DYKYC, Sept. 27,1982.)



 

89 East Bay c.1787

IMAGE -- This three and one-half story brick house was built in 1787 for John Deas, Jr. , scion of a prominent family of merchants and planters . The one story extension to the south, containing a garage and guest quarters, was built in 1936 and designed by Simons & Lapham, architects. (Stockton, "Rainbow Row,"; Stockton, DYKYC, April 16,1979.; Stoney, This is Charleston , p.42 )



 

90 East Bay c.1835

-- This two story stuccoed brick building with a hipped roof was built c. 1835 as the office of James Hamilton and Co., whose presiding officer was lntendant of Charleston, Governor of South Carolina, a general and a leader of the Nullifiers.
(Stoney, This is Charleston , p.42, STONEY, April 13,1958 )



 

91 East Bay c.1788

IMAGE-- Built by the merchantile firm of Leger and Greenwood (Peter Leger and William Greenwood), sometime before 1788, the building has undergone metamorphosis at least twice. Built originally as a store with residence above, the building, sometime in the mid 19th century, was given a Greek Revival facade and the upper floors were converted to loft space. When Mr. and Mrs. John McGowan restored the house in 1941, they removed the Greek Revival elements and gave the building its distinctive gable and the arched doorways The house is commonly known as the lnglis' Arch House after the old covered alley that runs through the lower level, and where George lnglis had his store in the mid-18th century. Originally known as Middle Alley, the passage ran from the arch on East Bay west to Bedon's Alley. lt is mentioned in Thomas Elliott's will in 1731. (Stockton, "Rainbow Row,"; Stockton, DYKYC, April 23,1979.; Stoney, This is Charleston , p.42 )



 

93 East Bay c.1778

IMAGE -- James Cook, a house carpenter, is believed to have built this three and one-half story, stuccoed brick house as his dwelling sometime after purchasing the property in 1778. Dating is complicated by the fact that it was remodeled in the mid-19th century when a Greek Revival facade was put on and the interior was gutted for warehouse space. Mr. and Mrs. John McGowan, who rehabilitated the building in 1941, attempted to return it to its probable original appearance.
(Stockton, "Rainbow Row,"; Stockton, DYKYC, April 30,1979.; Stoney, This is Charleston , p.42 )



 

95 East Bay c.1741

IMAGE: ON RIGHT -- The identity of the builder of the Flemish gabled building has never been established, but it is fairly certain the house was built soon after the great fire of 1740. Othniel Beale, who built 97 and 99-101 East Bay, may have had something to do with the design and constuction of this house, because its facade is related to his by giant order pilasters. lt may also have been built by Joseph Shute (for whom Shute's Folly was named), who was the owner in 1748. Subsequently, the building was owned by Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, the patriot officer and statesman, who was a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention in 1790, minister to France in 1796 and Federalist candidate for President in 1800, 1804 and 1808. (Stockton, "Rainbow Row,"; Stockton, DYKYC, May 14,1979.; Stoney, This is Charleston , p.42 )



 

97 East Bay c.1741

IMAGE-- The three story brick house was built c. 1741 by Othniel Beale, as part of a suite of buildings which included his home at 99-101 East Bay. The architectural suite is tied together by belt course and by the giant order pilasters at each end.
(Stockton, "Rainbow Row,"; Stockton, DYKYC, May 7,1979.)



 

99-101 East Bay c.1741

IMAGE: ON RIGHT -- Othniel Beale's double building was built after the great fire of 1740, which devastated most of the Charlestown waterfront. During the 1740s Beale, who lived here, was in charge of the strengthening of the city' s fortifications. He also owned a wharf in front of the house. His home retains handsome cypress paneling and other woodwork in the main rooms. The building was restored in the 1930s by Judge and Mrs. Lionel K. Legge. As a gesture of appreciation for their preservation efforts , the Society for the Preservation of Old Dwellings (now the Preservation Society of Charleston) permitted the Legges to place the iron balcony, owned by the society, on the front of the building.
(Stockton, "Rainbow Row,"; Stockton, DYKYC, May 21,1979.; Stoney, This is Charleston , p.43 ; Ravenel, Architects , p.20-21 )



 

103 East Bay Joseph Dulles House c.1787

IMAGE-- Joseph Dulles's House was built about 1787 and renovated in the 1930s by Anna Wells Rutledge, the South Carolina art historian. Dulles, of Scots descent, was born in Dublin and came to Charlestown in 1778. He took part in the defense of Charleston and was captured by the British in 1780. After the Revolution he was a merchant here until 1800, when he moved to Church Street. Tn 1812 he moved to Philadelphia but died in Charleston in 1818 and is buried in th Circular Congregational churchyard. The property was retained by his family until 1836. One of Dulles descendants was John Foster Dulles, U.S. Seoretary of State under President Eisenhower. Simons & Lapham designed the renovation in the 1930s , giving the house its distinctive gable end in order to install two windows in the half story, and replacing a 19th century storefront with two arched openings.
(Stockton, "Rainbow Row,"; Stockton, DYKYC, May 28,1979 .; Stoney, This is Charleston , p.43 )



 

105 East Bay Lewis Dutarque House c.1784

IMAGE-- Lewis Dutarque's house, built before 1784 is masked by a late 19th century store front, added by the Guida family who owned the property from 1890 to 1970. The interior retains Federal details.
(Stockton, "Rainbow Row,"; Stockton, DYKYC, June 4,1979.)
107 East Bay -- John Blake built this three and one-half story, stuccoed brick building c. 1792, using the wall of the building to the south to support his joists.
(Stockton, "Rainbow Row,"; Stockton, DYKYC, Feb. 21,1977.; Stoney, This is Charleston , p.44 )




 

107 East Bay Coates Row c.1800

IMAGE-- Coates' Row was built c. 1800 by Thomas Coates. No. 120 housed Harris' Tavern, later called the French Coffee House. lt has extensive underground wine cellars. No. 118 has rouged brick, designed to make the Carolina "grey" brick look like Philadelphia red brick, for which there was a brief vogue in Charleston.
(Stoney, This is Charleston , p.44 ; Stoney, News & Courier , April 13,1958; Whitelaw & Levkoff, p.32 )



 

109 East Bay c.1909

IMAGE-- This two story stuccoed brick building was built in 1909 as the printing plant of Walker, Evan & Cogswell. The name of the contractor, Henry Oliver, appears in raised letters on the cast iron crash guards which flank the building's entrances. ln 1983, the building was converted to residential condominiums.
(Stockton, unpub. M.S.)



 

117 East Bay c.1837

IMAGE-- The firm of Walker, Evans and Cogswell printers, stationers and publishers, and during the Civil War, printers of currency for the confederacy, was estabiished in 1821 by John C. Walker. The firm occupied this building in 1837. ln 1856, the firm purchased the building at 3 Broad, after which the two buildings were joined as one L-shaped structure. This building is four stories of brick, stucooed with the fourth story in a tin clad mansard, added in the latter part of the 19th century.
(Stockton, unpub. M.S.; 100 Years of "WECCO" )