Utility of chemokines CCL2, CXCL8, 10 and 13 and interleukin 6 in the pediatric cohort for the recognition of neuroinflammation and in the context of traditional cerebrospinal fluid neuroinflammatory biomarkers.

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    • Abstract:
      Background: The recognition of active inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) in the absence of infectious agents is challenging. The present study aimed to determine the diagnostic relevance of five selected chemo/cytokines in the recognition of CNS inflammation and in the context of traditional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (white blood cell [WBC] counts, oligoclonal bands, protein levels, CSF/serum albumin ratios) and clinical diagnoses. Methods: C-C and C-X-C motif ligands (CCL2, CXCL8, 10 and 13) and interleukin (IL) 6 levels in the CSF and serum from 37 control and 87 symptomatic children with ten different (mostly noninfectious) inflammatory CNS disorders (16 of which had follow-up samples after recovery) were determined using Luminex multiple bead technology and software. Nonparametric tests were used; p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to analyze controls and 1) all symptomatic samples or 2) symptomatic samples without CSF pleocytosis. Results: Compared with the control CSF samples, levels of all investigated chemo/cytokines were increased in symptomatic CSF samples, and only IL-6 remained elevated in recovery samples (p ≤ 0.001). CSF CXCL-13 levels (> 10.9 pg/mL) were the best individual discriminatory criterion to differentiate neuroinflammation (specificity/sensitivity: 97/72% and 97/61% for samples without pleocytosis), followed by CSF WBC counts (specificity/sensitivity: 97/62%). The clinical utility of the remaining CSF chemo/cytokine levels was determined in descending order of sensitivities corresponding to thresholds that ensured 97% specificity for neuroinflammation in samples without pleocytosis (pg/mL; sensitivity %): IL-6 (3.8; 34), CXCL8 (32; 26), CXCL10 (317; 24) and CCL2 (387; 10). Different diagnosis-related patterns of CSF chemo/cytokines were observed. Conclusions: The increased CSF level of CXCL13 was the marker with the greatest predictive utility for the general recognition of neuroinflammation among all of the individually investigated biomarkers. The potential clinical utility of chemo/cytokines in the differential diagnosis of neuroinflammatory diseases was identified. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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