Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) Taub. Leaves Ameliorates Inflammation and Pain in Experimental Mice and Computer-Aided Model.

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    • Abstract:
      Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) Taub. is traditionally used to treat several diseases, including leprosy, wound healing, gonorrhea, rheumatism, anemia, diarrhea and ulcer. This study evaluated the antiinflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanolic extract of Xylia xylocarpa leaves (MEXX) via in vitro, in vivo as well as in silico models. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by human red blood cell membrane stabilization study and protein denaturation while in vivo anti-nociceptive activity was examined by the acetic acid-induced writhing test (AAWT) and formalin-induced paw licking test (FIPLT). Additionally, trans-5-hydroxypipecolic acid was an identified compound of MEXX which was subjected to molecular docking analysis followed by ADME/T and toxicity analysis. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that MEXX was enriched with carbohydrates, flavonoids, alkaloids, proteins, tannins and showed significant total phenolic (1222.66 ± 0.66 mg GAE/g dried extract) and flavonoids contents (325.33 ± 1.76 mg QE/g dried extract) in quantitative phytochemical screening. Inflammatory studies unveiled that; MEXX significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the hemolysis of membrane and protein at different concentrations (31.25 - 1000 µg/mL). The extract also displayed statistically significant analgesic responses in the acetic acid and formalin-induced test at several doses (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w). In AAWT, the extract exhibited 13.67 and 51.37 % inhibition of writhing at the doses 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively. In formalin-induced paw licking test, the early phase pain inhibition was 54.64 % at the concentration of 400 mg/kg while during the latter phase at 400 mg/kg, the inhibition of pain was 43.82 %. According to molecular docking analysis, trans-5-hydroxypipecolic acid demonstrated a promising docking score against PDE4, COX-1, and COX-2 along with satisfied pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. Finally, from the results it could be concluded that MEXX has potential anti-inflammatory and an-nociceptive effects that should require further investigation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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