Nutrient Sensing, Leptin and Insulin Action.

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    • Abstract:
      The glucose-fatty acid cycle as proposed four decades ago by Randle suggests that insulin resistance develops in consequence of alterations of the metabolic pressure of lipids. The more recently published `hexosamine pathway theory' and the `malonyl-CoA hypothesis' depict insulin resistance as a consequence of an imbalance between utilization of lipids and carbohydrates. The latter is finely tuned by entry of fatty acids into the mitochondria and/or by entry of glucose to the hexosamine pathway. A significant body of evidence has also been accumulated which points to the complex effects of leptin, an adipocyte-derived signal of lipid stores, on the storage and metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. These are mediated either directly, through actions on specific tissues, or indirectly, via CNS, endocrine and neural mechanisms. The available literature also provides good evidence that leptin orchestrates the metabolic changes in a number of organs and tissues, and alters nutrient fluxes to favor energy expenditure over energy storage. In this article, the proposed lipopenic effects of leptin as studied in various animal models of diet-induced insulin resistance, and possible regulations of leptin production and action by marine fish oil feeding are reviewed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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