Psychological Distress in Solitary Confinement: Symptoms, Severity, and Prevalence in the United States, 2017–2018.

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  • Additional Information
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      Objectives. To specify symptoms and measure prevalence of psychological distress among incarcerated people in long-term solitary confinement. Methods. We gathered data via semistructured, in-depth interviews; Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) assessments; and systematic reviews of medical and disciplinary files for 106 randomly selected people in solitary confinement in the Washington State Department of Corrections in 2017. We performed 1-year follow-up interviews and BPRS assessments with 80 of these incarcerated people, and we present the results of our qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics. Results. BPRS results showed clinically significant symptoms of depression, anxiety, or guilt among half of our research sample. Administrative data showed disproportionately high rates of serious mental illness and self-harming behavior compared with general prison populations. Interview content analysis revealed additional symptoms, including social isolation, loss of identity, and sensory hypersensitivity. Conclusions. Our coordinated study of rating scale, interview, and administrative data illustrates the public health crisis of solitary confinement. Because 95% or more of all incarcerated people, including those who experienced solitary confinement, are eventually released, understanding disproportionate psychopathology matters for developing prevention policies and addressing the unique needs of people who have experienced solitary confinement, an extreme element of mass incarceration. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
      Copyright of American Journal of Public Health is the property of American Public Health Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
    • ISSN:
      00900036
    • Accession Number:
      10.2105/AJPH.2019.305375
    • Accession Number:
      141346210
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      REITER, K. et al. Psychological Distress in Solitary Confinement: Symptoms, Severity, and Prevalence in the United States, 2017–2018. American Journal of Public Health, [s. l.], v. 110, p. S56–S62, 2020. DOI 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305375. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=eft&AN=141346210. Acesso em: 5 abr. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Reiter K, Ventura J, Lovell D, et al. Psychological Distress in Solitary Confinement: Symptoms, Severity, and Prevalence in the United States, 2017–2018. American Journal of Public Health. 2020;110:S56-S62. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2019.305375.
    • APA:
      Reiter, K., Ventura, J., Lovell, D., Augustine, D., Barragan, M., Blair, T., Chesnut, K., Dashtgard, P., Gonzalez, G., Pifer, N., & Strong, J. (2020). Psychological Distress in Solitary Confinement: Symptoms, Severity, and Prevalence in the United States, 2017–2018. American Journal of Public Health, 110, S56–S62. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2019.305375
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Reiter, Keramet, Joseph Ventura, David Lovell, Dallas Augustine, Melissa Barragan, Thomas Blair, Kelsie Chesnut, et al. 2020. “Psychological Distress in Solitary Confinement: Symptoms, Severity, and Prevalence in the United States, 2017–2018.” American Journal of Public Health 110 (January): S56–62. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2019.305375.
    • Harvard:
      Reiter, K. et al. (2020) ‘Psychological Distress in Solitary Confinement: Symptoms, Severity, and Prevalence in the United States, 2017–2018’, American Journal of Public Health, 110, pp. S56–S62. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305375.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Reiter, K, Ventura, J, Lovell, D, Augustine, D, Barragan, M, Blair, T, Chesnut, K, Dashtgard, P, Gonzalez, G, Pifer, N & Strong, J 2020, ‘Psychological Distress in Solitary Confinement: Symptoms, Severity, and Prevalence in the United States, 2017–2018’, American Journal of Public Health, vol. 110, pp. S56–S62, viewed 5 April 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Reiter, Keramet, et al. “Psychological Distress in Solitary Confinement: Symptoms, Severity, and Prevalence in the United States, 2017–2018.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 110, Jan. 2020, pp. S56–S62. EBSCOhost, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2019.305375.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Reiter, Keramet, Joseph Ventura, David Lovell, Dallas Augustine, Melissa Barragan, Thomas Blair, Kelsie Chesnut, et al. “Psychological Distress in Solitary Confinement: Symptoms, Severity, and Prevalence in the United States, 2017–2018.” American Journal of Public Health 110 (January 2, 2020): S56–62. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2019.305375.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Reiter K, Ventura J, Lovell D, Augustine D, Barragan M, Blair T, et al. Psychological Distress in Solitary Confinement: Symptoms, Severity, and Prevalence in the United States, 2017–2018. American Journal of Public Health [Internet]. 2020 Jan 2 [cited 2020 Apr 5];110:S56–62. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=eft&AN=141346210