Symptoms, Viral Loads, and Rebound Among COVID-19 Outpatients Treated With Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir Compared With Propensity Score-Matched Untreated Individuals.

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    • Source:
      Publisher: Oxford University Press Country of Publication: United States NLM ID: 9203213 Publication Model: Print Cited Medium: Internet ISSN: 1537-6591 (Electronic) Linking ISSN: 10584838 NLM ISO Abbreviation: Clin Infect Dis Subsets: MEDLINE
    • Publication Information:
      Publication: Jan. 2011- : Oxford : Oxford University Press
      Original Publication: Chicago, IL : The University of Chicago Press, c1992-
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      Background: Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (N/R) reduces severe outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, rebound after treatment has been reported. We compared symptom and viral dynamics in individuals with COVID-19 who completed N/R treatment and similar untreated individuals.
      Methods: We identified symptomatic participants who tested severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-positive and were N/R eligible from a COVID-19 household transmission study. Index cases from ambulatory settings and their households contacts were enrolled. We collected daily symptoms, medication use, and respiratory specimens for quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 10 days during March 2022-May 2023. Participants who completed N/R treatment (treated) were propensity score matched to untreated participants. We compared symptom rebound, viral load (VL) rebound, average daily symptoms, and average daily VL by treatment status measured after N/R treatment completion or 7 days after symptom onset if untreated.
      Results: Treated (n = 130) and untreated participants (n = 241) had similar baseline characteristics. After treatment completion, treated participants had greater occurrence of symptom rebound (32% vs 20%; P = .009) and VL rebound (27% vs 7%; P < .001). Average daily symptoms were lower among treated participants without symptom rebound (1.0 vs 1.6; P < .01) but not statistically lower with symptom rebound (3.0 vs 3.4; P = .5). Treated participants had lower average daily VLs without VL rebound (0.9 vs 2.6; P < .01) but not statistically lower with VL rebound (4.8 vs 5.1; P = .7).
      Conclusions: Individuals who completed N/R treatment experienced fewer symptoms and lower VL but rebound occured more often compared with untreated individuals. Providers should prescribe N/R, when indicated, and communicate rebound risk to patients.
      Competing Interests: Potential conflicts of interest. S. R. reports grant support from BioFire. H. Q. M. reports grant/research support from CSL Sequiris and CSK. J. G. P. reports serving as a former consultant for CSL Seqirus and receipt of grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and CSL Seqirus. E. A. reports serving as a former consultant for Hillevax and Moderna, presenting a Merck-supported lecture at the Latin American Vaccine Summit, and receipt of grant/research support from Pfizer for pneumococcal pneumonia studies. C. G. G. reports being a former advisor to Merck, participation on a data and safety monitoring board (DSMB) or advisory board for Merck, and receipt of grant/research support from AHRQ, CDC, US Food and Drug Administration, NIH, and Syneos Health. N. M.B. reports grant/contracts from NIH to the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, and North Carolina Collaboratory; participation on a DSMB or advisory board for the Snowball Study Technical Interchange; a leadership or fiduciary role on the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Scientific Committee; and other financial or nonfinancial interests with the COVID-19 Equity Evidence Academy (RADx-UP CDCC) Steering Committee and North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Education Research Center. S. H. M. reports grants/contracts from NIH, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. E. A. B. reports research support to the Marshfield Clinic Research Institute from the CDC. E. S. reports grants or contracts to institution from Vanderbilt University Medical Center (originating at CDC #75D30121C11656). S. G. reports support for attending meetings and/or travel from the Infectious Diseases Society of America for Infectious Disease Week 2022 and 2023. K. G. M., L. M., S. B.-W., and V. O. report funding to Westat via the CDC (contract 75D30121C11571). M. S. S. reports a leadership role as Associate Director of the American Academy of Pediatrics’ Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS), paid to Trustees of Columbia University. All other authors report no potential conflicts. All authors have submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Conflicts that the editors consider relevant to the content of the manuscript have been disclosed.
      (Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America 2023.)
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    • Grant Information:
      CC999999 United States ImCDC Intramural CDC HHS; K24 AI148459 United States AI NIAID NIH HHS; 75D30121C11656 United States CC CDC HHS; Trustees of Columbia University; Vanderbilt University Medical Center; 75D30121C11656) RVTN
    • Contributed Indexing:
      Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; antiviral treatment; rebound; symptoms; viral loads
    • Publication Date:
      Date Created: 20231114 Date Completed: 20240514 Latest Revision: 20240517
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